Underground Railroad That Ran South to Mexico...

5fish

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YES... there was an Underground railroad to Mexico...

LINK: https://www.history.com/news/underground-railroad-mexico-escaped-slaves

Fortunately, slavery was also illegal in Mexico. Researchers estimate 5,000 to 10,000 people escaped from bondage into Mexico, says Maria Hammack, who is writing her dissertation about this topic at the University of Texas at Austin. But she thinks the actual number could be even higher.

There’s some evidence that tejanos, or Mexicans in Texas, acted as “conductors” on the southern route by helping people get to Mexico. In addition, Hammack has also identified a black woman and two white men who helped enslaved workers escape and tried to find a home for them in Mexico.

Hammack has discovered one runaway named Tom who had been enslaved by Sam Houston. Houston was a president of the Republic of Texas who’d fought in the Texas Revolution. Once Tom got across the border, he joined the Mexican military that Houston had fought against.

Slaveholders knew that enslaved people were escaping to Mexico, and the U.S. tried to get Mexico to sign a fugitive slave treaty. Just as the Fugitive Slave Act of 1850 had compelled free states to return escapees to the south, the U.S. wanted Mexico to return escaped slaves to the U.S. But Mexico refused to sign such a treaty, insisting that all enslaved people were free when they set foot on Mexican soil. Despite this, some U.S. slave owners still hired slave catchers to illegally kidnap escapees in Mexico.

In addition, some northern abolitionists traveled south to help enslaved people reach Mexico. “I have come across abolitionists from the north who were going to Mexico to petition Mexico to allow them to buy land to establish colonies for runaway slaves and free blacks,” Hammack says. In the early 1830s, Quaker abolitionist Benjamin Lundy “was actively petitioning the Mexican government to allow for colonies to be established for, I guess what we would consider now, refugees.”

Lundy’s plan to start a free colony in Mexico’s Texas region was thwarted when it separated from Mexico and legalized slavery. Later, in 1852, Seminole groups that included runaway slaves successfully petitioned the Mexican government for land. “It still belongs to their descendants and they still live there to this day in Mexico,” Hammack says.

These and other refugees fleeing slavery through the southern “underground railroad” all benefited from Mexico’s willingness to give them a safe haven.

"These were clandestine routes and if you got caught you would be killed and lynched, so most people didn’t leave a lot of records,” says Hammack.

Not that much out there on this topic...

 

5fish

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Texas independence was about slavery...

Now government controlled labor drafts called repartimientos, rather than slaves, provided workers to the Spanish-owned estates and mines at salaries set by the government. While the Plan of Iguala, proposed by Augustin de Iturbe in 1820 had abolished slavery, it was not until 1824 that a Constitution was adopted that actually freed them. Even so, it was not until 1829 that the last slaves were freed. Slavery did survive in the part of Mexico that is now Texas. Indeed, Mexican efforts to free slaves played an important role in the formation of the Republic of Texas. It was largely fueled by the desire of " Gringo" slave owners to retain their chattels.

Declared independence slavery was mentioned...

During the Texas Revolution, a convention of American Texans meets at Washington-on-the-Brazos and declares the independence of Texas from Mexico. The delegates chose David Burnet as provisional president and confirmed Sam Houston as the commander in chief of all Texan forces. The Texans also adopted a constitution that protected the free practice of slavery, which had been prohibited by Mexican law. Meanwhile, in San Antonio, Mexican General Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna’s siege of the Alamo continued, and the fort’s 185 or so American defenders waited for the final Mexican assault.

Link to the reason for texas leaving mexican rule number 2 slavery: https://www.thoughtco.com/causes-of-texas-independence-2136245

Most of the American settlers in Mexico were from southern states, where slavery was still legal. They even brought their slaves with them. Because slavery was illegal in Mexico, these settlers made their slaves sign agreements giving them the status of indentured servants – essentially slavery by another name. The Mexican authorities grudgingly went along with it, but the issue occasionally flared up, especially when slaves ran off. By the 1830s, many settlers were afraid that the Mexicans would take their slaves away: this made them favor independence.
 

Mike12

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Texas independence was about slavery...

Now government controlled labor drafts called repartimientos, rather than slaves, provided workers to the Spanish-owned estates and mines at salaries set by the government. While the Plan of Iguala, proposed by Augustin de Iturbe in 1820 had abolished slavery, it was not until 1824 that a Constitution was adopted that actually freed them. Even so, it was not until 1829 that the last slaves were freed. Slavery did survive in the part of Mexico that is now Texas. Indeed, Mexican efforts to free slaves played an important role in the formation of the Republic of Texas. It was largely fueled by the desire of " Gringo" slave owners to retain their chattels.

Declared independence slavery was mentioned...

During the Texas Revolution, a convention of American Texans meets at Washington-on-the-Brazos and declares the independence of Texas from Mexico. The delegates chose David Burnet as provisional president and confirmed Sam Houston as the commander in chief of all Texan forces. The Texans also adopted a constitution that protected the free practice of slavery, which had been prohibited by Mexican law. Meanwhile, in San Antonio, Mexican General Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna’s siege of the Alamo continued, and the fort’s 185 or so American defenders waited for the final Mexican assault.

Link to the reason for texas leaving mexican rule number 2 slavery: https://www.thoughtco.com/causes-of-texas-independence-2136245

Most of the American settlers in Mexico were from southern states, where slavery was still legal. They even brought their slaves with them. Because slavery was illegal in Mexico, these settlers made their slaves sign agreements giving them the status of indentured servants – essentially slavery by another name. The Mexican authorities grudgingly went along with it, but the issue occasionally flared up, especially when slaves ran off. By the 1830s, many settlers were afraid that the Mexicans would take their slaves away: this made them favor independence.
What are you reaching for? That its all slavery in Texas too? Ludicrous! We're getting so crazy in here.
By 1836, there were approximately 5,000 slaves in Texas. 35,000 people in Texas. He took point 2 of the 9 points. The Alamo is a Church-Cross looking thing right now... By 1850, the slave population in Texas had increased to 58,161; in 1860 there were 182,566 slaves, 30 percent of the total population.

Mexican Empire wanted total obedience is what they were called and in Catholicism. "These Americans became Mexican citizens and were supposed to learn Spanish and convert to Catholicism. " You said it...
William Barrett Travis' Letter from the Alamo, 1836 | TSLAC (texas.gov)

I'm from Texas, see what they want to do with all of "American Character"? They've got a bunch of crazy people. They closed Lone Star steakhouse.
 

5fish

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What are you reaching for? That its all slavery in Texas too?
Yes, The first war Americans fought to protect the institution of Slavery was the Texas Revolution a Slaveholder revolt...


snip... the founding of Texas was an expansion of Slavery...

Of all the erased historical contexts of the Texas Revolution, the absence of slavery from the central place it occupied is one of the most destructive. If included in proportional historical context, slavery would effortlessly connect the Texas Revolution to the national debates around the Civil War, and the construction of race in American culture, that were going on at the same time. Slavery was not an aberrant system destined to wither away. Rather, the history of Texas pushes historians to look at slavery as an imperial system, looking to expand westward and southward into Mexico and Latin America. The Texas origin myth has managed to escape Confederate-linked scrutiny by eliminating slavery from the Texas Revolution, much like those pushing states’ rights have from the American Civil War narrative. Slaveholders answered the call by flooding into Texas immediately after 1836. The slaveholder population boomed from approximately 596 in 1837 to 3,651 in 1845, increasing the population of enslaved people from 3,097 to 24,401 over those years. The average number of enslaved people for each slaveholder also increased from 4.61 to 6.23, pointing to the increased scale of the slave-based economy in Texas during the Republic era.

snip...

While the slave-related context of the Alamo has been silenced or hidden in plain sight, even frames of reference connected with Anglo American immigrants have fallen away from view. Although American historians have reached a clear consensus regarding the centrality of slavery to the American Civil War, Texas historians have largely avoided marking the Texas Revolution as a slaveholder rebellion, which in large part it was. Instead, Texas history has primarily emphasized grievances with Mexico, which was labeled as despotic, echoing the Spanish imperial Black Legend narrative.

snip... International Pariah because of slavery...

The Republic of Texas became an international pariah state, as foreign governments hesitated to acknowledge its independence. Britain would only engage in trade if it considered Texas under existing treaties with Mexico. Furthermore, British foreign secretary Lord Henry Palmerston believed slaveholder dominance in Texas “would be a serious question to be considered in her Majesty’s Cabinet.” Between the dominance of slavery and slaveholder governance, and the violation of Mexican sovereignty, most nations steered clear of Texas.

snip... outlawed free blacks...

As a result, the Republic of Texas passed what should be considered the first Confederate Constitution. Section 9 of the General Provisions Texas Republic Constitution protected the institution of slavery from elimination in perpetuity, and effectively outlawed free Black Texans. Section 9 directly states, “No free person of African descent, either in whole or in part, shall be permitted to reside permanently in the Republic….” It’s impossible to reconcile depictions of the Texas Revolution as a war for liberty with the reality of the Republic of Texas Constitution. And yet Texans do it every year—in the fourth grade and then again in the seventh.

@Mike12 , I responded because you posted lucid post... and you needed to know your home state of Texas true history...
 

Mike12

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Yes, The first war Americans fought to protect the institution of Slavery was the Texas Revolution a Slaveholder revolt...


snip... the founding of Texas was an expansion of Slavery...

Of all the erased historical contexts of the Texas Revolution, the absence of slavery from the central place it occupied is one of the most destructive. If included in proportional historical context, slavery would effortlessly connect the Texas Revolution to the national debates around the Civil War, and the construction of race in American culture, that were going on at the same time. Slavery was not an aberrant system destined to wither away. Rather, the history of Texas pushes historians to look at slavery as an imperial system, looking to expand westward and southward into Mexico and Latin America. The Texas origin myth has managed to escape Confederate-linked scrutiny by eliminating slavery from the Texas Revolution, much like those pushing states’ rights have from the American Civil War narrative. Slaveholders answered the call by flooding into Texas immediately after 1836. The slaveholder population boomed from approximately 596 in 1837 to 3,651 in 1845, increasing the population of enslaved people from 3,097 to 24,401 over those years. The average number of enslaved people for each slaveholder also increased from 4.61 to 6.23, pointing to the increased scale of the slave-based economy in Texas during the Republic era.

snip...

While the slave-related context of the Alamo has been silenced or hidden in plain sight, even frames of reference connected with Anglo American immigrants have fallen away from view. Although American historians have reached a clear consensus regarding the centrality of slavery to the American Civil War, Texas historians have largely avoided marking the Texas Revolution as a slaveholder rebellion, which in large part it was. Instead, Texas history has primarily emphasized grievances with Mexico, which was labeled as despotic, echoing the Spanish imperial Black Legend narrative.

snip... International Pariah because of slavery...

The Republic of Texas became an international pariah state, as foreign governments hesitated to acknowledge its independence. Britain would only engage in trade if it considered Texas under existing treaties with Mexico. Furthermore, British foreign secretary Lord Henry Palmerston believed slaveholder dominance in Texas “would be a serious question to be considered in her Majesty’s Cabinet.” Between the dominance of slavery and slaveholder governance, and the violation of Mexican sovereignty, most nations steered clear of Texas.

snip... outlawed free blacks...

As a result, the Republic of Texas passed what should be considered the first Confederate Constitution. Section 9 of the General Provisions Texas Republic Constitution protected the institution of slavery from elimination in perpetuity, and effectively outlawed free Black Texans. Section 9 directly states, “No free person of African descent, either in whole or in part, shall be permitted to reside permanently in the Republic….” It’s impossible to reconcile depictions of the Texas Revolution as a war for liberty with the reality of the Republic of Texas Constitution. And yet Texans do it every year—in the fourth grade and then again in the seventh.

@Mike12 , I responded because you posted lucid post... and you needed to know your home state of Texas true history...
hey buddy if I was allowed the rules to go away a second... you know a rude thumbs down... You use the word slavery with a subjective emotive quality that's supposed to rule the world. No US history because of something here or there? They Are deleting US history. They'll know all about whatever it is, whales, and and marijuana farms... Blind eyes and deaf ears. I just told you it was less than 1/7th of the people involved in the state about it. I told you that. quoting numbers? You know what everyone wants to act like, is like, there was a big Imperial Majesty on top telling two peoples not to get along, you bought your slave at a private source with laws that allow that to happen and Didn't Like people you Met Yourself. Slavery of spear chuckers naked from africa that weren't better before being naked.
 

5fish

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hey buddy
First we ain't buds until you chance your ways. I know the truth hurts and you must be sore form my post.

Didn't Like people you Met Yourself.
You must not like yourself for you see yourself in my post and get annoyed...

Slavery of spear chuckers naked from africa that weren't better before being naked.
Inappropriate use of the English language...
 

Mike12

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I'm not avoidant personality , am I individually culpable in some sort of scenario? What's that?... No one ever spelled that out.

What SLAVE WORK is in Texas-Mexico?! The Slavery 1860 by County map has everybody at harbor work on the east coast Houston region..
 

5fish

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I'm not avoidant personality , am I individually culpable in some sort of scenario? What's that?... No one ever spelled that out.

What SLAVE WORK is in Texas-Mexico?! The Slavery 1860 by County map has everybody at harbor work on the east coast Houston region..
You are talking about this a lot of slaves...


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