HBCU Cheated of Funds...

5fish

Well-Known Member
Joined
Jul 28, 2019
Messages
5,025
Reaction score
3,063
Here we go again... Where our society cheats the African-Americans of something owned to them from our greater society...

Here is one of a few articles about Land-grant HBCU and how states rarely meet thier funding of Black Land-grant colleges under the 1890 and 1862 laws creating them...

Here this link...

 

5fish

Well-Known Member
Joined
Jul 28, 2019
Messages
5,025
Reaction score
3,063
Here Is a link to an articles with dollar numbers attached...


Snip...

Tennessee could owe a historically Black university more than a half-billion dollars after it withheld funding for decades.

A bipartisan legislative committee determined last month that the state failed to adequately fund Tennessee State University in matched land grants going all the way back to the 1950s, costing the public university between $150 million and $544 million.


Snip...

Tennessee State isn't the only historically Black college or university missing out on state funds. Maryland recently finalized a $577 million settlement to resolve a lawsuit alleging the state had underfunded its four HBCUs.
 

5fish

Well-Known Member
Joined
Jul 28, 2019
Messages
5,025
Reaction score
3,063
@diane I assume you may know this history but these land grant college sold Native American lands to fund themselves... like earlier college sold slaves to fund themselves... So college back east got western lands free to sale to fund their colleges... I going to prove my ignorance, I always thought land-grant colleges were college given free land to build their on, was I wrong... It was a wealth transfer system, instead... @O' Be Joyful , @Jim Klag , @rittmeister , @jgoodguy

https://pulitzercenter.org/stories/...old,revenue for their associated universities.

snip...

The Morrill Act of 1862 granted expropriated Indigenous land to states in order to fund universities. ... The lands were usually sold quickly to raise money for college endowments, but in some cases, they remain in the possession of the states and continue to produce revenue for their associated universities.

snip...

Our research revealed that by the early 20th century, the grants were worth about $22.8 million in endowment principal and unsold land, or about half-a-billion dollars when adjusted to current values. By contrast, we found that the US paid just $400,000 dollars for Indigenous title to the same land, although much of it was simply seized. Not a single dollar was paid for more than a quarter of the parcels that supplied the grants.


snip... some college to this day still make money of these lands...

Holdings of so-called “mineral acres” — land that contains oil, natural gas, or other extractable minerals — are even more extensive. Unlike the parcel sold in Moorhead, Minnesota, these retained surface and mineral acres continue to generate sizable incomes — at least $8.6 million in fiscal year 2019 alone — for their associated universities and leave lots of opportunities for reporters to ask questions of institutions and report on the ongoing impact of the 1862 law.
 

5fish

Well-Known Member
Joined
Jul 28, 2019
Messages
5,025
Reaction score
3,063
Here another article more details... It has picture of the parcels land look like today... maps and other info... worth a read...

https://www.hcn.org/issues/52.4/indigenous-affairs-education-land-grab-universities

snip... last wild Indian?

In August 29, 1911, a Yahi man known as Ishi came out of hiding near Oroville, California. He had spent decades evading settlers after the massacre of his community in the 1860s and had recently lost the last of his family. Whisked off to the University of California’s anthropology museum, he was described by the press as the “last wild Indian.” Ishi spent his final years living at the museum. When he wasn’t explaining his language to researchers or making arrow points for visitors, he swept the floors with a straw broom as a janitor’s assistant. In return, he was paid $25 a month by the same university that sold thousands of acres of his people’s land out from under him while he hid out in forests and river canyons.

snip...

Behind that myth lies a massive wealth transfer masquerading as a donation. The Morrill Act worked by turning land expropriated from tribal nations into seed money for higher education. In all, the act redistributed nearly 11 million acres — an area larger than Massachusetts and Connecticut combined. But with a footprint broken up into almost 80,000 parcels of land, scattered mostly across 24 Western states, its place in the violent history of North America’s colonization has remained comfortably inaccessible.

snip...

The returns were stunning: To extinguish Indigenous title to land siphoned through the Morrill Act, the United States paid less than $400,000. But in truth, it often paid nothing at all. Not a single dollar was paid for more than a quarter of the parcels that supplied the grants — land confiscated through outright seizure or by treaties that were never ratified by the federal government. From the University of Florida to Washington State University, from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology to the University of Arizona, the grants of land raised endowment principal for 52 institutions across the United States

snip...

Today, these acres form the landscape of the United States. On Morrill Act lands there now stand churches, schools, bars, baseball diamonds, parking lots, hiking trails, billboards, restaurants, vineyards, cabarets, hayfields, gas stations, airports and residential neighborhoods. In California, land seized from the Chumash, Yokuts and Kitanemuk tribes by unratified treaty in 1851 became the property of the University of California and is now home to the Directors Guild of America.In Missoula, Montana, a Walmart Supercenter sits on land originally ceded by the Pend d’Oreille, Salish and Kootenai to fund Texas A&M. In Washington, Duwamish land transferred by treaty benefited Clemson University and is now home to the Fort Lawton Post military cemetery. Meanwhile, the Duwamish remain unrecognized by the federal government, despite signing a treaty with the United States

snip... Lincoln the Great land thief...

Few years have mattered more in the history of U.S. real estate than 1862. In May, Abraham Lincoln signed the Homestead Act, which offered farmland to settlers willing to occupy it for five years. Six weeks later came the Pacific Railway Act, which subsidized the Transcontinental Railroad with checkerboard-shaped grants. The very next day, on July 2, 1862, Lincoln signed “An Act donating Public Lands to the several States and Territories which may provide Colleges for the Benefit of Agriculture and the Mechanic Arts.” Contemporaries called it the Agricultural College Act. Historians prefer the Morrill Act, after the law’s sponsor.

snip... stone age people could not compete with lawyers...

“You can point to every treaty where there’s some kind of fraud, where there’s some kind of coercion going on, or they’re taking advantage of some extreme poverty or something like that so they can purchase the land at rock bottom prices,” said Jameson Sweet (Lakota/Dakota), assistant professor in the Department of American Studies at Rutgers University. “That kind of coercion and fraud was always present in every treaty.”

snip...

The 150,000 acres selected for the University of Arizona — once the home of the Pima, Yuman, Tohono O’odham, Navajo and Apache — were nearly all seized without payment at the end of the Apache War and the arrest of Geronimo. While UArizona benefited from tracts in the Grand Canyon State, portions of grants assigned to Auburn University and Pennsylvania State University were redeemed from expropriated Apache lands in Arizona.

 

diane

that gal
Joined
Mar 18, 2020
Messages
1,968
Reaction score
2,564
@diane I assume you may know this history but these land grant college sold Native American lands to fund themselves... like earlier college sold slaves to fund themselves... So college back east got western lands free to sale to fund their colleges... I going to prove my ignorance, I always thought land-grant colleges were college given free land to build their on, was I wrong... It was a wealth transfer system, instead... @O' Be Joyful , @Jim Klag , @rittmeister , @jgoodguy

https://pulitzercenter.org/stories/how-they-did-it-exposing-how-us-universities-profited-indigenous-land#:~:text=The Morrill Act of 1862,in order to fund universities.&text=The lands were usually sold,revenue for their associated universities.

snip...

The Morrill Act of 1862 granted expropriated Indigenous land to states in order to fund universities. ... The lands were usually sold quickly to raise money for college endowments, but in some cases, they remain in the possession of the states and continue to produce revenue for their associated universities.

snip...

Our research revealed that by the early 20th century, the grants were worth about $22.8 million in endowment principal and unsold land, or about half-a-billion dollars when adjusted to current values. By contrast, we found that the US paid just $400,000 dollars for Indigenous title to the same land, although much of it was simply seized. Not a single dollar was paid for more than a quarter of the parcels that supplied the grants.


snip... some college to this day still make money of these lands...

Holdings of so-called “mineral acres” — land that contains oil, natural gas, or other extractable minerals — are even more extensive. Unlike the parcel sold in Moorhead, Minnesota, these retained surface and mineral acres continue to generate sizable incomes — at least $8.6 million in fiscal year 2019 alone — for their associated universities and leave lots of opportunities for reporters to ask questions of institutions and report on the ongoing impact of the 1862 law.
The Morrill Act was never meant to benefit Natives, and went together with the Homestead Act of the same year. A few decades later black colleges benefitted from the Morrill Act as well. The process of doing these things was begun legislatively when military operations against the tribes allied with the British ceased with Anthony Wayne's campaign through the Hudson Valley (later repeated by Kit Carson in the Canyon de Chelly against Navajos). It was always with the idea the tribes were vanishing and would soon be no more - rather a premature dividing of the spoils.

Again - Cobell vs Salazar. That case was a glaring spotlight on the legacy of all these disasterous (to Native people) policies and legislation.
 

5fish

Well-Known Member
Joined
Jul 28, 2019
Messages
5,025
Reaction score
3,063
I found that in 1994 Tribal college were added to land-grant college... one time 23 million does not sound like a good deal....

.

snip...

On October, 20, 1994, President Bill Clinton signed into law the Equity in Educational Land-Grant Status Act, which designated tribal colleges and universities (TCUs) as land grant institutions. ... The act was a much needed panacea for tribal lands where 75% of the land was being used for range or agricultural purposes.Feb 17, 2019

Here some more links... map too...


snip...

The 31 tribal colleges of 1994 are represented as a system by the single membership of the American Indian Higher Education Consortium (AIHEC). The AIHEC has its headquarters in Alexandria, Virginia for the benefits of ready access to the federal government in Washington, D.C.. None of its member schools are located in Virginia. They are located from Michigan westward to Arizona, California and Alaska.

snip...


This is a list of land-grant colleges and universities in the United States of America and its associated territories.[1]

Land-grant institutions are often categorized as 1862, 1890, and 1994 institutions, based on the date of the legislation that designated most of them with land-grant status. For a map and list of all 76 land-grant institutions, see the State Partners page hosted by the National Institute of Food and Agriculture (formerly the Cooperative State Research, Education, and Extension Service).[2]

Of the 106 land-grant institutions, all but two (the Community College of Micronesia and Northern Marianas College) are members of the Association of Public and Land-grant Universities (formerly the National Association of State Universities and Land-Grant Colleges).

Note: Historically black colleges or universities on this list are listed in italics.


Here is the list of Tribal Land-Grant colleges...

 
Top