Bacon Rebellion

5fish

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It is said the Bacon Rebellion of 1676-1677 planted to seeds of the race based system system that arose in the south....

LINK:https://www.history.com/news/bacons-rebellion-jamestown-colonial-america

Snip...

In the aftermath of the rebellion, white planters reacted with alarm to the anger they had seen among the black Virginians who had joined Bacon’s rebellion. “The planters had not been able to control this rowdy labor force of servants and slaves,” historian Ira Berlin told PBS. “But soon after Bacon's Rebellion they increasingly distinguish between people of African descent and people of European descent. They enact laws which say that people of African descent are hereditary slaves.”

Snip...

Planters feared what their white indentured servants could do, so they slowly eliminated the system, relying instead on enslaved black people to work their plantations. Backlash from Bacon’s rebellion is credited with helping kick off the racial distinctions that defined the colonies and the United States that followed.

Snip...

Indentured servants both black and white joined the frontier rebellion. Seeing them united in a cause alarmed the ruling class. Historians believe the rebellion hastened the hardening of racial lines associated with slavery, as a way for planters and the colony to control some of the poor.

SNIP... https://www.pbs.org/wgbh/aia/part1/1p274.html

Still without the commission he felt he deserved, Bacon returned to Jamestown later the same month, but this time accompanied by five hundred men. Berkeley was forced to give Bacon the commision, only to later declare that it was void. Bacon, in the meantime, had continued his fight against Indians. When he learned of the Govenor's declaration, he headed back to Jamestown. The governor immediately fled, along with a few of his supporters, to Virginia's eastern shore.

Each leader tried to muster support. Each promised freedom to slaves and servants who would join their cause. But Bacon's following was much greater than Berkeley's. In September of 1676, Bacon and his men set Jamestown on fire.

The rebellion ended after British authorities sent a royal force to assist in quelling the uprising and arresting scores of committed rebels, white and black. When Bacon suddenly died in October, probably of dysentery, Bacon's Rebellion fizzled out.

Bacon's Rebellion demonstrated that poor whites and poor blacks could be united in a cause. This was a great fear of the ruling class -- what would prevent the poor from uniting to fight them? This fear hastened the transition to racial slavery.
 

5fish

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Appomattox was named after an Indian people that vanish from history in 1722... a link...

LINK: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Appomattoc

Snip... The Bacon Rebellion was one of the last nails in their history...

Although beyond the allowed treaty limits, Batts in 1674 patented land just west of Matoks. Settlers destroyed the Appomattoc village during Bacon's Rebellion in 1676. The nearby Matoaca, Virginia was named after the native village. Perecuta and his tribe were excluded from the 1677 Treaty of Middle Plantation. He was among those who signed the 1680 addendum to the treaty. Wood patented land at Ronhorak in 1680, indicating some further retreat of the Appomattoc from their lands.

Although the colony had prohibited Indian slavery by law, Nathaniel Bacon re-introduced the practice in 1676.
It was violently opposed by the Indians and caused much suffering to the people. Tribes raided their enemies to sell captives as slaves to the English in Virginia and further north. But, the colonial legislature took 15 years until it abolished Indian slavery in 1691.

As the Appomattoc population began to dwindle, the people were vulnerable to attack from traditional western enemy tribes. On April 24, 1691, the weroansqua who succeeded Perecuta petitioned the colony for permission for her people to live among the English for protection.[4] In 1705, Robert Beverley, Jr. noted that the Appomattoc consisted of no more than seven families, living on the pasture of William Byrd II at Westover Plantation. This was the last known mention of them as a distinct tribe in historic records and they were estimated to be extinct by 1722. Their descendants likely assimilated into Virginia colonial society or merged with other tribes.

The names "Appomattox" and "Mattox" were sometimes applied to the Matchotic, a Virginia Indian group made up of the Onawmanient and other remnant tribes of the Powhatan Confederacy, but located principally in the Northern Neck region between the Potomac and Rappahannock rivers. There were historic villages named Matchotic in Northumberland and King George's counties.
[5]
 

5fish

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It was a mess and we not counting the Indians that were killed... https://www.nps.gov/jame/learn/historyculture/bacons-rebellion.htm

Feeling that it would make his triumph complete, Bacon issued his "Declaration of the People" on July 30, 1676 which stated that Berkeley was corrupt, played favorites and protected the Indians for his own selfish purposes. Bacon also issued his oath which required the swearer to promise his loyalty to Bacon in any manner necessary (i.e., armed service, supplies, verbal support). Even this tight rein could not keep the tide from changing again. Bacon's fleet was first and finally secretly infiltrated by Berkeley's men and finally captured. This was to be the turning point in the conflict, because Berkeley was once again strong enough to retake Jamestown. Bacon then followed his sinking fortunes to Jamestown and saw it heavily fortified. He made several attempts at a siege, during which he kidnapped the wives of several of Berkeley's biggest supporters, including Mrs. Nathaniel Bacon Sr., and placed them upon the ramparts of his siege fortifications while he dug his position. Infuriated, Bacon burned Jamestown to the ground on September 19, 1676. (He did save many valuable records in the statehouse.) By now his luck had clearly run out with this extreme measure and he began to have trouble controlling his men's conduct as well as keeping his popular support. Few people responded to Bacon's appeal to capture Berkeley who had since returned to the Eastern Shore for safety reasons.

Snip... Bacon dies of body lice?

On October 26th, 1676, Bacon abruptly died of the "Bloodie Flux" and "Lousey Disease" (body lice). It is possible his soldiers burned his contaminated body because it was never found. (His death inspired this little ditty; Bacon is Dead I am sorry at my hart That lice and flux should take the hangman's part".)

Snip... Berkeley becomes a tyrant

Shortly after Bacon's death, Berkeley regained complete control and hanged the major leaders of the rebellion. He also seized rebel property without the benefit of a trial. All in all, twenty-three persons were hanged for their part in the rebellion. Later after an investigating committee from England issued its report to King Charles II, Berkeley was relieved of the Governorship and returned to England where he died in July 1677.
 
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